Surface Modification and Applications Laboratory (SMAL)


Dr. Subhendu Sarkar


Postdoc: IMEC, Leuven, Belgium (2006 - 2008)

PhD: Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

M.Sc: Calcutta University, West Bengal, India

B.Sc: St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

10+2: St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Secondary: R. K. Mission Vidyapith, Purulia, West Bengal, India

Work experience

Associate Professor (2016 - Present)

Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, IIT Ropar (2009 - 2016)

Visiting scientist: IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India (2008 - 2009)


Link to my ResearchGate

PhD Scholars

Rakhi Baliyan

Ms. Rakhi is a Junior Research Scholar in the department.  She joined her PhD in the year 2019.  She completed her B.Sc in the year 2013 from DAV PG college Muzaffarnagar. She had finished her M.Sc in the year 2015 from the same college. She had qualified CSIR-NET 2018, GATE 2017,18 and JEST 2018.

Area of Research:

Rakhi tries to explore relaxation mechanisms of ion beam eroded surfaces. She works in the regime of low energy ions bombarded on semiconductor surfaces. She applies universal scaling concepts to distinguish surface relaxation mechanisms between continuous and intermittent sputtering events. She studies the effect of different ion beam parameters on nanopattern formation.

TA Experiences:   UG Physics Laboratory (PHP 100)


Deeksha Rani

Ms. Deeksha is a Junior Research Scholar in the department.  She joined her PhD in the year 2019. She did her graduation (B.Sc) from HNB Garhwal University in the year 2015. She had finished her M.Sc in Physics from NIT Jalandhar in the year 2018. She has qualified CSIR NET (JRF) 2018 and GATE 2019.

Area of Research:

Deeksha's research interest focuses on the dynamical study and desiccation patterns of sessile droplets containing nano particles. She studies the effects of roughness and substrate nano-structures on drying patterns of sessile drops.


Jaspreet Singh

Mr. Jaspreet is a Junior Research Scholar in the department.  He joined his PhD in the year 2020. He did his graduation (B.Sc) from Panjab University in the year 2017. He had finished his M.Sc in Physics from GNDU Amritsar in the year 2019. He has qualified CSIR NET (JRF) 2020 and GATE 2020.

Area of Research:

Jaspreet's research interest focuses on light-matter interaction studies from nano-structured materials.


Pawan Kumar

Mr. Pawan Kumar is a Junior Research Scholar in the department. He joined PhD in the year 2021. He did his graduation (Bachelors) with Physics Major from SGTB Khalsa College (Delhi University) in the year 2017. He completed his M.Sc in Physics  from the Department of Physics Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar in the year 2019. He has qualified for UGC-JRF in 2019, CSIR-NET-2020 and GATE-2020, 2021.

Area of Research:

Pawan's research interest focuses on ion beam patterning of soft materials for potential applications.


Past Members

Dr. Shinki Midha

PhD degree awarded: 2022

Thesis title: SERS and Optical Investigations on Ordered and Disordered Metallic Nanostructures

Thesis summary: Shinki has worked to design and layout fabrication recipes for metal nanostructures by a simple and cost-effective approach that is simultaneously suitable for scale-up fabrications for SERS-based potential applications and novel optical phenomena for selective light transmission. Considering the technological demand for cost-effective fabrication processes applicable over a large area, she proposed a wet chemical etch technique for the synthesis of ordered and disordered metal nanostructures. Later on, she extended her study by employing a low-energy Ar+ ion beam irradiation method. These techniques lead to the realization of metal nanostructures of controlled sizes lying in the range of nm to micro-m. These nanostructures were further employed to meet the challenges faced by conventional SERS substrates for day-life applications and in selective optical transmission filters.

Current position: Postdoctoral fellow, University of Alberta, Canada

Dr. Deepa Lohani

PhD degree awarded: 2022

Thesis title: Evaporation dynamics of colloidal sessile droplets on smooth and nanorough surfaces

Thesis summary: Deepa has worked on evaporative self-assembly of colloidal sessile droplets. In her thesis, the effect of substrate roughness on Coffee Ring Effect has been thoroughly investigated. Her studies demonstrate that the wetting property and van der Waals interaction decrease as the nanoscale roughness increases. The emergence of cracks has been investigated in detail. Higher moments of height fluctuations are also found to play roles in ring formation. Studies were conducted to investigate the combined influence of random roughness, particle size, and concentration. Evaporation of binary mixture droplets were also investigated. The addition of polymer to the air-water interface increases particle adsorption and creates a network structure that prevents outward capillary movement, resulting in uniform deposition. Altogether, the studies add to the understanding of colloidal particle self-assembly and its link to evaporation kinetics, deposit patterns, particle size and concentration, and substrate nanoscale roughness.

Dr. Basanta Kumar Parida

PhD degree awarded: 2019

Thesis title: Low energy ion beam nanopatterning of Co(x)Si(1-x) surfaces

Thesis summary: Basanta has worked on ion-induced pattern formation on binary compound namely CoxSi1-x. He work was in the domain of low energetic primary ions (<1200 eV). The samples were using magnetron sputtering facility in the lab. He used the ion source facility to pattern the surface. His results demonstrate the evolution of nanoscale to micro-scale morphological structures with the variation of ion energies. Nanoscale ripples with anisotropic electrical conduction properties have also been observed. Non-conventional experiments employing substrate swinging have exhibited nano-cauliflower like structures.

Current position: Postdoctoral Fellow, FCIPT-IPR, Gandhinagar, India

Dr. Prabha Sana

Post doctoral fellow: 2014-15

Research summary: Prabha worked on scaling studies on chemically eroded anisotropic surfaces of silicon. Results indicate large-scale dynamics of Si (100) surfaces during the initial stages of anisotropic wet (KOH) chemical etching. These systems are known to lead to the formation of characteristic pyramids, or hillocks, of typical sizes in the nanometric/micrometer scales which have large applications. This complex and rich morphological evolution features at least three different regimes in just 10 min of etching. Such a complex time behavior cannot be consistently explained within a single formalism for dynamic scaling.

Current position: Research Scientist, IHP Microeelctronics, Frankfurt (Oder) Germany 

Dr. Prabhjeet K Dhillon

PhD degree awarded: 2014

Thesis title: Scaling studies of physically and chemically eroded surfaces

Thesis summary: Prabhjeet has worked on universal scaling characteristics of surfaces nano and microstructured using physical and chemical routes. For physical routes she had employed ion beam routes. Surfaces modified using chemical means were done by isotropic and anisotropic wet etching on Si surfaces. A further study on polymer structuring was also done. Results indicated temporal and as well as spatial fluctuations depending on the pattern parameters.

Current position: Assistant Professor, Guru Nanak College for Girls, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab